CHRM Research Collaborations

CHRM Board and FSU Faculty Co-Authored Research Articles 

Martinez, A. D., Kane, R. E., Ferris, G. R., & Brooks, C. D. (2012). Power in Leader–Follower Work Relationships. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 19, 142-151. 

There is perhaps no more important workplace relationship than that between a leader and a follower. Nonetheless, few studies examine the implications of both leader and follower power on important work outcomes. Therefore, this study examined how the interplay of leader and follower power affects important work outcomes, namely, work relationship quality and job tension, through followers’ met expectations. The study hypotheses were examined utilizing data obtained from 100 leader–follower pairs working at a large state agency. Our results indicated that leaders with more power were better able to meet their followers’ expectations; not surprisingly, followers with met expectations indicated less job stress and better relationship quality with their leaders. In addition, because powerful followers should be able to acquire assistance and resources on their own, they were expected to need less support from their leaders than non-powerful followers. However, our findings did not provide support for this notion. Taken together, powerful leaders are more likely to meet their followers’ expectations which in turn reduces followers’ job stress and increases the work relationship quality between leaders and followers; these relationships hold true even for followers that are themselves powerful. 

Thompson, K.W., Shea, T.H., Sikora, D.M., Perrewé, P.L., & Ferris, G.R. (2012). Rethinking underemployment and overqualification in organizations: The not so ugly truth. Business Horizons, 56, 113-121. 

What comes to mind when you hear the term underemployment? Does a slight, disapproving frown purse your lips? Does pity flood your heart? Or do forgotten mental notations to study the topic permeate your brain? Although we are intimately familiar with unemployment and its effects, we are much less aware of underemployment and its impact on people and organizations. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, in January 2012, underemployment was estimated to affect more than 10 million people in the American civilian labor force. Its magnitude suggests that underemployment is a significant issue for all involved. By combining practical experiences from an outplacement firm (Right Management, headed by our second author) and what we have learned from academic research, we herein describe five types of underemployment, discuss widely held assumptions about the issue, and offer suggestions regarding ways that organizations might harness the power of this economy-wide phenomenon. 

Kacmar, K.M., Andrews, M.C., Van Rooy, D.L., Steilberg, R.C., & Cerrone, S. (2006). Sure everyone can be replaced … but at what cost? Turnover as a predictor of unit-level performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 133-144. 

Most turnover research positions employee turnover as the dependent variable and focuses on identifying its antecedents. In this study, we viewed turnover as a key predictor in determining 

unit-level performance. Specifically, a structural model was developed and tested that links managerial and employee turnover with performance through efficiency. We tested the model using a sample of 262 BURGER KING® restaurants. Results demonstrate that efficiency, measured as customer “wait time,” explains the relationships of both management and crew turnover to both sales and profit, and efficiency, measured as food waste, does not mediate the relationship of turnover to sales or profit. 

Research Publications Generated from CHRM Board Involvement 

McAllister, C.P., & Ferris, G.R. (2016). The call of duty: A duty development model of organizational commitment. In M.R. Buckley, A.R. Wheeler, & J.R.B. Halbesleben (Eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. 

Employee commitment is growing in importance as today’s workforce becomes more mobile and increasingly willing to leave an organization is search of better opportunities. Although the academic literature has considered base levels of commitment, there is little research examining how a sense of duty can be instilled in employees. The model presented in this research suggests that the development of duty is the responsibility of both the organization and the individual. Thus, organizations desiring to inspire commitment need to invest in their employees and, in return, employees will reciprocate that sentiment by investing in their organization. Over time, organizations working towards this end can create dutiful employees who perform better and leave less. 

Sikora, D.M., Ferris, G.R., & Van Iddekinge, C.H. (2015). Line manager implementation perceptions as a mediator of relations between high performance work practices and employee outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(6), 1908-1918. 

This study examined the role that line managers play in implementing their firm’s HR policies and practices. The study found that as line managers implemented more of their organization’s HR practices, their employees had lower job turnover intentions, higher job performance perceptions, and higher perceptions of being involved in workplace decision making. Additionally, the study demonstrated that line manager’s HR competencies and their political skill levels were both linked to greater HR practice implementation. When the managers had higher HR skill levels and/or had higher political skill levels, they implemented more of their firm’s HR practices. Overall, the paper highlighted the critical role that line managers play in implementing their organization’s HR practices and in shaping important employee outcomes. 

Brouer, R.L., Badaway, R.L., Gallagher, V.C., & Haber, J. (2015). Political Skill Dimensionality and Impression Management Choice and Effective Use. Journal of Business and Psychology, 30(2), 217-233. 

The purpose of this study was to test a model examining the individual dimensions of political 

skill on influence tactic choice and performance ratings. Findings suggest that the dimension of social astuteness best predicts positive impression management over negative impression management. Apparent sincerity interacted with positive impression management tactics to predict higher performance ratings, whereas interpersonal influence did not. The findings support 

that socially astute individuals use more positive influence tactics in the workplace. This could impact the broader work environment, making it more pleasant than one with individuals using negative influence tactics. Thus, it might be the interest of organizations to train individuals to enhance their social astuteness. However, confirming prior research, performance evaluations made by managers are impacted by more than objective performance (e.g., political skill). Thus, organizations need to ensure the proper training of managers to lessen these types of biases. 

Meurs, J.A., Gallagher, V.C., & Perrewé, P.L. (2010). The role of political skill in the stressor-outcome relationship: Differential predictions for self- and other- reports of political skill. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 520-533. 

The beneficial role of political skill in stress reactions and performance evaluations has 

been demonstrated in a substantial amount of empirical research. Most of the research, 

however, has focused on self-perceptions of political skill. This study examines the differential 

effects of self- vs. other-rated political skill in the conflict – emotional burnout and performance relationships. Findings suggest that both self and supervisor-rated political skill reduced the negative effects of conflict on burnout. Interestingly, when examining employee performance, only supervisor-rated political skill reduced the negative effects of conflict on performance. Thus, it appears that both types of reporting of political skill can reduce employee stress, but only supervisors’ perceptions of employee political skill affect the performance ratings of employees who experience work conflict. 

Conference Presentations 

Steffensen, D.S., McAllister, C.P., Brooks, C.D., & Perrewé, P.L. (2016). Not at the table: A diary study analyzing the effects of constant connectivity on work-family conflict. In P.L. Perrewe & P. Spector (Co-Chairs) Advances in occupational stress research symposium at Southern Management Association meetings, Charlotte, NC. 

Advancements in communications technology have had many positive effects on business-outcomes. For example, they have increased the flexibility for how, when, and where work gets done. Though positive outcomes exist, we examined potential negative effects in this study. Specifically, we examined the well-being of individuals who feel “constantly connected” to their work via smart-devices. Our findings suggest that being constantly connected affects the tension that employees have regarding their job. Further, employees who were constantly connected also experienced greater conflict in terms of the balance between their work and non-work lives. Given our findings, organizational leaders should set clear guidelines for the use of smartphones, tablets, and other devices that can connect their employees to their work. Employees need time to decompress; reducing their feelings of being constantly connected can help them recover from the stresses of work. 

Maher, L., Gallagher, V.C., Rossi, A.M., Ferris, G., & Perrewé, P.L. (2016). Political skill and will as predictors of impression management frequency and style: A three-study configurational investigation. Paper presented at Southern Management Association meetings, in Charlotte, NC.

Organizational politics is an inescapable fact of life for most companies, and this involves certain employees gaining undue favor with others though interpersonal exchanges with others. Different impression management tactics are used to influence supervisors, co-workers, and subordinates in order to develop and maintain informal power. However, these tactics are rarely ever used in isolation, and we know very little about what type of people use different combinations of these tactics to create overall impression management strategies. The results of this study confirm previous findings that there are generally three types of people: Aggressives who are constantly and oftentimes excessively trying to manage impressions, passives who generally take a more laissez faire approach, and positives who selectively use tactics that are designed to give people a positive and likeable impression. Study results also demonstrate that employees with high levels of political skill, an emerging measure of social effectiveness at work, generally select the positive impression management strategy. Additionally, employees with political will, an emerging measure of motivation to engage in office politics, is shown to be a good predictor of impression management strategies, such that low levels of political will predicts passives, high levels of political will predicts aggressives, and medium levels of political will predicts positives. In summary, the employees who select impression management strategies that make them appear likable to others are those with the highest political skill, but a moderate amount of political will. 

Invited Talks 

Ellen, B. P., III (2016, November). Validating the leader political support construct. Management and Entrepreneurship Department, Sawyer Business School, Suffolk University. 

Ellen, B. P., III (2016, October). Validating the leader political support construct. Social/Personality Area Meeting, Department of Psychology, College of Science, Northeastern University.


Recent Publications and Summaries

Bansal, A., & King, D. R. (2020). Communicating change following an acquisition. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-30. 

We find employee perceptions of the rationale behind decisions fully mediate the impact of the information communicated. This suggests ‘how’ decisions are made and communicated following an acquisition are equally if not more important than ‘what’ is communicated to employees. 


Blass, F. R. Bonafide: Discovering your leadership locus. (2020). Tallahassee, FL. Lusory Publishing. 

This book was written to serve as a tool in teaching undergraduate leadership classes. The book is provided free of cost to students and is also available on Amazon. 


Devine, R. A., Molina-Sieiro, G., Holmes, R. M., & Terjesen, S. A. 2019. Female-led high growth: Examining the role of human and financial resource management. Journal of Small Business Management, 57: 81-109. 

Access to financial and human resources contributes to high growth more strongly in firms with female entrepreneurs. These results suggest that female leaders may have advantages in leveraging their firms’ resources to achieve high growth (e.g., they may be better at managing their relationships with venture capitalists and with top management team members). 


Fiorito, J. T., Padavic, I., Russell, Z. A. (2018). Pro-Social and Self-Interest Motivations for Unionism and Implications for Unions as Institutions. Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, 2017: Shifts in Workplace Voice, Justice, Negotiation and Conflict Resolution in Contemporary Workplaces, 24, 185-211. 

The question of why workers support unions is one of the most fundamental in employment relations. We review models and evidence of union voting, joining, and participation, and find support for the notion that workers are concerned not only with member self-interest (”just us”), nor ”justice,” but rather that they are motivated to form, join, and participate by both considerations. 


Frear, K., Paustian-Underdahl, S., Halbesleben, J., & French, K. (2019). Strategies for Work-Family Management: The Importance of Career-Family Centrality and Gender. Archives of Scientific Psychology

We used qualitative and quantitative data from 70 individuals at different life stages to examine work–family management strategies adopted by men and women across 4 career–family centrality profiles: career-centric, family-centric, dual-centric, and other-centric. We found that men of all centrality profiles, along with dual-centric and career-centric women, leaned back from family to benefit their careers (e.g., delayed having children). Men and women of all centrality profiles scaled back their work demands to benefit family, yet only women reported stepping out of their work role altogether (including career-centric and dual-centric women). This gender-role-congruent finding of women stepping out was supplemented by men, of all centrality profiles, who adopted work–family management strategies aimed at enabling their current or future wives to step out. The findings suggest that in order to fully understand gender equality in the workplace, it is important to understand the social processes occurring at home, including how men and women jointly negotiate managing the work–family interface. 


Gabriel, A., Koopman, J., Rosen, C., Arnold, J., & Hochwarter, W. (in press). Are coworkers getting into the act? An examination of emotion regulation in coworker exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105, 907-929. 

We adopt a person-centered approach and demonstrate that four distinct profiles of 

emotion regulation emerges in coworker exchanges: deep actors, non-actors, low actors, and regulators. Further, our results suggest that certain employees are driven to regulate their emotions with coworkers for prosocial reasons (deep actors), whereas others are more driven by impression management motives (regulators). 


Hackney, K., Daniels, S. R., Paustian-Underdahl, S., Perrewe, P. L., Eaton, A., & Mandeville, A. (2020). The Effects of Pregnancy Discrimination in the Workplace on Mother and Baby Health. Journal of Applied Psychology

We find that perceived pregnancy discrimination indirectly relates to increased levels of postpartum depressive symptoms for the mothers, and lower birth weights, lower gestational ages, and increased number of doctors’ visits for the babies, via perceived stress of the mothers during pregnancy. Given the potential negative ramifications of perceived pregnancy discrimination and mothers’ stress, we hope to encourage organizations to create supportive and nondiscriminatory environments for their employees. 


Halliday, C., Paustian-Underdahl, S., & Fainshmidt, S. (2020). Women on Boards of Directors: A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Roles of Organizational Leadership and National Context for Gender Equality. Journal of Business and Psychology, 1-20. Retrieved from

Our meta-analysis reveals that the national context surrounding gender equality moderates the effects of characteristics of organizational leadership on female board representation. Specifically, having female CEOs may be less consequential to female board representation in organizations within countries with higher gender equality, whereas board independence is more strongly related to female board representation in such national contexts. Interestingly, in countries with higher gender equality, higher board ownership is associated with lower female board representation, while in countries with relatively lower gender equality, board ownership and family ownership show the opposite effect. 


Hochwarter, W.A., Rosen, C.C., Jordan, S.L., Ferris, G.R., Ejaz, A., & Maher, L.P. (2020). Perceptions of organizational politics research: Past, present, and future. Journal of Management, 46(6), 879-907. 

We just reached the thirty-year anniversary of theory and research on ‘perceptions of organizational politics (POPs)’, with the first major paper published in 1989. That work is critically reviewed, we try to better distinguish POPs from other related constructs and introduce event systems theory as a guiding framework for future work. 


Hochwarter, W. (in press). Does empathy make the experience of work politics better or worse? Organizational Dynamics

Suggests that empathy may not be an appropriate approach in dealing with organizational politics during stressful and crisis-laden situations. 


Hochwarter, W., Kapoutsis, I., Jordan, S., Khan, A., & Babalola, M. (2020). Dyads of politics and the politics of dyads: Implications for leader development. In M. Buckley, J. Halbesleben, & A. Wheeler (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 37). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. 

Examined politics from a leader development perspective arguing that supervisors are the best source of salient information regarding the development and use of political behavior. 


Holmes, R. M. 2019. Why are there so few women CEOs? The Conversation, September 5. 

This article summarizes Wang, Holmes, Devine, and Bishoff (2018). It has been reprinted and referenced in several media outlets. The authors found that although female CEOs have more human capital (e.g., more elite educations) than male CEOs, they often are paid less, are less likely to chair the board of directors, have shorter tenures in their positions, and more likely to lead firms that were at greater risk of failing already. In addition, although firms with female and male CEOs earn similar profits, firms with female CEOs earn lower returns on the stock market (which suggests that investors discount firms with female CEOs). Gender stereotypes, in-group favoritism (i.e., males evaluate other males more favorably), family demands, and socialization processes might explain these findings. 


Jordan, S.L., Ferris, G.R., & Lamont, B.T. (2019). A framework for understanding the effects of past experiences on justice expectations and perceptions of human resource inclusion practices. Human Resource Management Review, 29(3), 386-399. 

Despite increased efforts by organizations to develop an inclusive culture, employee skepticism regarding the long-lasting benefits of human resource diversity and inclusion (D&I) practices remain. We theorize that variation in employee uncertainty lies, largely, in employees’ prior experiences with D&I practices and their expectations regarding the fairness of new initiatives. 


Jordan, S.L., Palmer, J.C., Hochwarter, W.A., Daniels, S.R., & Ferris, G.R. (2020). Supervisor narcissistic rage: Political support as an antidote. Journal of Managerial Psychology. doi:10.1108/JMP-08-2019-0474 

We examine the joint implications of supervisor narcissistic rage and political support on employee work outcomes. Results affirm that supervisor characteristics considered toxic do not always provoke adverse reactions when considering other leader features simultaneously. 


McAllister, C.P., Steffensen, D.J., Perrewé, P.L., Wang, G., & Brooks, C.D. (2020). How to cope with that “always-on” feeling: It was real even before the pandemic. Harvard Business Review, May 21. 

Now that constant connectivity is our new normal, it is even more important that we learn to set clear boundaries for ourselves, to sustain our productivity and our families’ well-being. As we reflect on the Covid-19 pandemic response to date, an unprecedented level of digital connectedness for both employees and leaders has emerged. As social distancing continues and we adjust to these new work demands, it is critical that employees retain (or regain) some level of control over their work. If employees work to improve their willpower and set appropriate work-to-life boundaries, and if leaders communicate standards and expectations effectively, working from home during this pandemic can be a universal positive for everyone lucky enough to be able to do it. 


Palmer, J. C., Holmes, R. M., & Perrewé, P. L. (2020). The cascading effects of CEO dark triad personality on subordinate behavior and firm performance: A multi-level theoretical model. Group & Organization Management, 45(2), 143–180.

We examine how chief executive officer (CEO) narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy impact CEO–Top Management Team (TMT) social interactions and examine the downstream consequences this can have on TMT members and their interactions with their subordinates, and subsequent firm performance. 


Palmer, J. C., Chung, Y., Park, Y., & Wang, G. (2020). Affectivity and riskiness of retirement investment decisions. Personnel Review. Advance online publication.

Employees who are high in positive affectivity and tend to view their world in a generally positive light are more likely to make risky retirement investments. We found that positive affectivity employees also tended to have stronger financial knowledge advice networks (i.e., a network of financially literature peers that they can discuss investment decisions with). The strength of these advice networks partially explains their openness toward making risky investments. 


Pryor, C., Holmes, R. M., Webb, J. W., & Liguori, E. W. 2019. Top executive goal orientations’ effects on environmental scanning and performance: Differences between founders and non-founders. Journal of Management, 45: 1958-1986. 

Executives’ goal orientations (i.e., their inherent preferences for learning, demonstrating competence, or avoiding perceptions of incompetence) influence firm performance via their effects on environmental scanning processes in their firms, and these relationships differ for founder- vs. non-founder executives (e.g., perhaps because founders have more legitimacy within, experience in, and commitment to their firms). 


Summers, J.K., Munyon, T.P., Brouer, R.L., Pahng, P., & Ferris, G.R. (in press). Political skill in the stressor - strain relationship: A meta-analytic update and extension. Journal of Vocational Behavior

The present investigation sought to help reconcile such inconsistencies in past work by estimated the meta-analytic effects of political skill in stress and strain processes. We find that political skill is negatively related to general stressors, interpersonal conflict, role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout. Post-hoc tests suggest that neither stress tolerance nor job social orientation moderates the effects of political skill on job tension. 


Sutton, T., Devine, R. A., Lamont., B. T., Holmes, R. M. in press. Resource dependence, uncertainty, and the allocation of corporate political activity across multiple jurisdictions. Academy of Management Journal

Executives make campaign contributions for the expressed purpose of discouraging harmful government regulations, especially when they are facing negative media attention and hostile social movements (e.g., environmental groups) that increase the likelihood of such regulations. The turnover of top managers and politicians, however, tends to reduce their use of campaign contributions for this purpose. 


Tihic, M., Blass, F. R., Almissalati, N., Maury, R., & Sears, K. (2020). Work Behaviors, Attitudes, and Responses to COVID-19: A comparison study between veteran and non-veteran entrepreneurs. Syracuse, NY: Institute for Veterans and Military Families, Syracuse University. 

This report shows that veteran entrepreneurs perceived less stress than non-veterans and greater intention to close their business during COVID-19. 


Zhang, L. Van Iddekinge, C.H., Arnold, J., Roth, P.L., Lievens, F., Lanivich, S., & Jordan, S.L. (2020). What’s on job seekers’ social media sites? A content analysis and effects of structure on recruiter judgments and predictive validity. Journal of Applied Psychology

Using content analysis, we found that Facebook sites often provided demographic information (e.g., age, ethnicity, religion) that U.S. equal employment laws routinely prohibit organizations from using when making personnel decisions, as well as information of concern to many organizations (e.g., profanity, illegal activities, discrimination, violence). Additionally, structuring social media assessments (e.g., by training raters) did not have a significant impact on recruiter evaluations. This research suggests that organizations should be cautious about assessing social media information during the staffing process as the validity of such research is still unknown, the likelihood of using protected information high, and the possibility of truly unbiased judgments limited.

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